Homemade Certificate and Unidirectional Authentication


 

Homemade Certificate and Unidirectional Authentication

使用Tomcat和OpenSSL自制证书和配置单向服务器身份验证

0x00. OpenSSL使用

作为本地环境的实验,可以使用OpenSSL生成证书帮助理解证书认证的整个过程,事实上,在应用层面OpenSSL的可靠性是值得考量的,最著名的事件莫过于在2014年爆出的心跳漏洞(Heart Bleed),利用该漏洞,黑客坐在自己家里电脑前,就可以实时获取到约30%https开头网址的用户登录账号密码,包括大批网银、购物网站、电子邮件等。

1. 获取OpenSSL

  • Github
  • OpenSSL官网
  • Git安装目录下的/usr/bin/openssl.exe(win10,Linux类似)

比较折腾的方法是到Github或者OpenSSL官网的官网下载源码,然后自己编译,但我敲下nmake命令之后,发现这个坑不是一般的大,想想要在我这破电脑上装个VS突然心酸不已,那有没有什么easy way呢?有,而且或许在不知不觉中你已经装了,那就是Git,想想Git一套套的安全验证机制,当你在Git安装目录下的/usr/bin/中找到openssl.exe这个文件时真的不需要惊奇。

2. 创建私钥

下面命令会生成2048位RSA密钥对, 并且将它存放在exp.key文件中。

OpenSSL> genrsa -out out.key 2048

如果不指定参数则会创建默认2048位的RSA密钥对, 并且输出到stdout

OpenSSL> genrsa
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
.......................................................................................+++
........+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

下面是genrsa命令的一些参数 (usage: genrsa [args)][numbits])

参数 说明
-des encrypt the generated key with DES in cbc mode
-des3 encrypt the generated key with DES in ede cbc mode (168 bit key)
-idea encrypt the generated key with IDEA in cbc mode
-seed encrypt PEM output with cbc seed
-aes128, -aes192, -aes256 encrypt PEM output with cbc aes
-camellia128, -camellia192, -camellia256 encrypt PEM output with cbc camellia
-out file output the key to ‘file
-passout arg output file pass phrase source
-f4 use F4 (0x10001) for the E value
-3 use 3 for the E value
-engine e use engine e, possibly a hardware device.
-rand file;file;… load the file (or the files in the directory) intothe random number generator

3. 创建证书请求

下面命令使用 exp.key密钥文件(刚刚创建的) 生成一个新的证书请求文件exp.csr。 在创建过程中需要输入一些其它参数, 这些参数在下面给出

OpenSSL> req -new -out exp.csr -key exp.key

输出内容如下

Enter pass phrase for root.key: ← 输入前面创建的密码 
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated 
into your certificate request. 
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. 
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank 
For some fields there will be a default value, 
If you enter ‘.’, the field will be left blank. 
—– 
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:CN ← 国家代号,中国输入CN 
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:BeiJing ← 省的全名,拼音 
Locality Name (eg, city) []:BeiJing ← 市的全名,拼音 
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:MyCompany Corp. ← 公司英文名 
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: ← 可以不输入 
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []: ← 创建根证书时不用输入,创建服务器证书时需要认真输入 
Email Address []:admin@mycompany.com ← 电子邮箱,可随意填

Please enter the following ‘extra’ attributes 
to be sent with your certificate request 
A challenge password []: ← 可以不输入 
An optional company name []: ← 可以不输入

下面是req的一些参数

使用:req [options] outfile

参数 说明
-inform arg input format - DER or PEM
-outform arg output format - DER or PEM
-in arg input file
-out arg output file
-text text form of request
-pubkey output public key
-noout do not output REQ
-verify verify signature on REQ
-modulus RSA modulus
-nodes don’t encrypt the output key
-engine e use engine e, possibly a hardware device
-subject output the request’s subject
-passin private key password source
-key file use the private key contained in file
-keyform arg key file format
-keyout arg file to send the key to
-rand file;file;… load the file (or the files in the directory) into the random number generator
-newkey rsa:bits generate a new RSA key of ‘bits’ in size
-newkey dsa:file generate a new DSA key, parameters taken from CA in ‘file’
-newkey ec:file generate a new EC key, parameters taken from CA in ‘file’
-[digest] Digest to sign with (md5, sha1, md2, mdc2, md4)
-config file request template file.
-subj arg set or modify request subject
-multivalue-rdn enable support for multivalued RDNs
-new new request.
-batch do not ask anything during request generation
-x509 output a x509 structure instead of a cert. req
-days number of days a certificate generated by -x509 is valid for.
-set_serial serial number to use for a certificate generated by -x509.
-newhdr output “NEW” in the header lines
-asn1 -kludge Output the ‘request’ in a format that is wrong but some CA’s

4. 生成自签名证书

下面命令用证书请求文件exp.csr, 通过exp.key签名后生成有效其10年的证书exp.crt

OpenSSL> x509 -req -in exp.csr -out exp.crt -signkey exp.key -days 3650

X509 一些常用参数:

参数 说明
-CAform arg - CA format - default PEM
-outform arg - output format - default PEM (one of DER, NET or PEM)
-inform arg - input format - default PEM (one of DER, NET or PEM)
-keyform arg - private key format - default PEM
-CAkeyform arg - CA key format - default PEM
-in arg - input file - default stdin
-out arg - output file - default stdout
-passin arg - private key password source
-serial - print serial number value
-subject_hash - print subject hash value
-subject_hash_old - print old-style (MD5) subject hash value
-issuer_hash - print issuer hash value
-issuer_hash_old - print old-style (MD5) issuer hash value
-hash - synonym for -subject_hash
-subject - print subject DN
-issuer - print issuer DN
-email - print email address(es)
-startdate - notBefore field
-enddate - notAfter field
-purpose - print out certificate purposes
-dates - both Before and After dates
-modulus - print the RSA key modulus
-pubkey - output the public key
-fingerprint - print the certificate fingerprint
-alias - output certificate alias
-noout - no certificate output
-ocspid - print OCSP hash values for the subject name and public key
-ocsp_uri - print OCSP Responder URL(s)
-trustout - output a “trusted” certificate
-clrtrust - clear all trusted purposes
-clrreject - clear all rejected purposes
-addtrust arg - trust certificate for a given purpose
-addreject arg - reject certificate for a given purpose
-setalias arg - set certificate alias
-days arg - How long till expiry of a signed certificate - def 30 days
-checkend arg check whether the cert expires in the next arg seconds exit 1 if so, 0 if not
-signkey arg - self sign cert with arg
-x509toreq - output a certification request object
-req - input is a certificate request, sign and output.
-CA arg - set the CA certificate, must be PEM format.
-CAcreateserial - create serial number file if it does not exist
-CAserial arg - serial file

0x01. 根证书

根证书根证书是CA认证中心给自己颁发的证书,是信任链的起始点。安装根证书意味着对这个CA认证中心的信任。

1. 制作根证书密钥root.key

生成2048位的RSA密钥对,并且使用3重DES对之进行加密,将加密结果输出到root.key密钥文件

openssl genrsa -des3 -out root.key 2048

img

2. 创建根证书的申请文件root.csr

使用root.key文件中的私钥加密请求信息并将加密结果输出到root.csr文件中

req -new -key root.key -out root.csr

img

3. 创建一个自当前日期起为期十年的根证书 root.crt

x509 -req -days 3650 -sha256 -extensions v3_ca -signkey root.key -in root.csr -out root.crt

img

0x02. 服务器证书

1. 创建服务器证书密钥 server.key

genrsa -des3 -out server.key 2048

img

2. 创建服务器证书的申请文件 server.csr

req -new -key server.key -out server.csr

img

3. 创建服务器证书

创建自当前日期起有效期为期十年的服务器证书 server.crt

openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -sha256 -extensions v3_req -CA root.crt -CAkey root.key -CAcreateserial -in server.csr -out server.crt

img

4. 导出.p12文件 server1.p12

openssl pkcs12 -export -in D:\softwares\Git\usr\bin\server.crt -inkey D:\softwares\Git\usr\bin\server.key -out  D:\softwares\Git\usr\bin\server1.p12 -name "server1"

根据命令提示,输入server.key密码,创建p12密码。 img

5. 生成./store文件 server1.keystore

使用JDK自带的密钥工具keytoool生成密钥存储文件

keytool -importkeystore -v -srckeystore  /tmp/ca/server.p12 -srcstoretype pkcs12 -srcstorepass 123456 -destkeystore /tmp/ca/server.keystore -deststoretype jks -deststorepass 123456
// 这里srcstorepass后面的123456为server.p12的密码deststorepass后的123456为keyStore的密码

img

0x03. 配置Tomcat

  • 将keystore文件server.keystore放在tomcat根目录的conf目录下
  • 修改tomcat配置文件server.xml,添加Connector节点
  <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Protocol"
               maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" scheme="https" secure="true"
               keystoreFile="/你的tomcat根目录/conf/server.keystore"
               keystorePass="123456"
               clientAuth="false" sslEnabledProtocols="TLSv1.2"
               ciphers="TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
                               TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
                               TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,
                               TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,
                               TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA,
                               TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA" />

0x04. 测试

修改C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts文件,使上面配置server.csr时指定的www.geekeye.com指向环路地址127.0.0.1

img

在IDEA中使用本地的Tomcat运行一个项目进行测试

img

成功访问登录界面,显示不安全

img

在http协议下登录,输入用户名密码都为admin,请求的后端接口为user/login.do,使用Wireshark抓包情况如下

img

在https协议下登录,输入用户名密码都为admin,请求的后端接口为user/login.do,使用Wireshark抓包情况如下

img

用户名密码信息已经看不到了,因为数据已经使用加密方法加密了。

0x05. 参考

0x06. 相关文章

Java, Security developer https://jordonyang.github.io/ Guangzhou, China 本站所有文章如未说明均为原创,请勿随意转载,如需转载请联系我 (linfengit@qq.com)